HYBRID MASONRY DESIGN
Hybrid masonry is a structural system that utilizes reinforced masonry infill walls with a framed structure. While the frame can be constructed of reinforced concrete or structural steel and the masonry can be concrete masonry units or structural clay brick units, the discussion here will include steel frames in combination with reinforced concrete masonry walls. The masonry walls are used as part of the lateral load resisting system.
Following the development of the wrought-iron framed Glass Palace in France in 1851, framed technology evolved and spread to the United States. Since then, combining masonry walls with frames has been used as common feature of many early building types.
Caged construction was introduced in 1882 by architect George Post. The first caged framed building used a structural steel framework mixed with exterior walls of unreinforced masonry. The term caged walls resulted from the exterior walls being built around a structural cage. The frame supported the floor and roof gravity loads; the masonry was independent of the frame and self-supporting and provided the lateral stiffness. As a result, the wall thicknesses were only slightly less than those in bearing wall buildings…
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